Tuesday, 28 August 2012 14:23

Colorectal Surgery

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Colorectal Surgery

Colorectal surgery repairs damage to the colon, rectum, and anus through a variety of procedures caused by diseases of the lower digestive tract, such as cancer, diverticulitis, and inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease). Injury, obstruction, perforation, masses and scar tissues which may cause blockage may also require bowel surgery. Surgical removal of the damaged area or areas can return normal bowel function. Other bowel conditions that may require surgery to a lesser extent are hemorrhoids, anal fissures, rectal prolapsed, and bowel incontinence.

Types of surgery 

There are a variety of procedures a colorectal surgeon may use to treat intestinal disorders. Before, all colorectal surgery was performed by making large incisions in the abdomen, opening up the intestinal cavity, and making the repair. Most of these repairs involved resection (cutting out the diseased or damaged portion) and anastomosis (attaching the cut ends of the intestine together). Some were tucks to tighten sphincter muscles or repair fissures, and others cut out hemorrhoids.

Often colorectal surgery involves creating an ostomy, which is an opening from the inside of the body to the outside, usually to remove body wastes (feces or urine). There are several types of ostomy surgeries that colorectal surgeons do. A colostomy is a surgical procedure that brings a portion of the large intestine through the abdominal wall, creating an opening, or stoma, to carry feces out of the body to a pouch. An ileostomy removes the entire colon, the rectum, and the anus. The lower end of the small intestine (the ileum) becomes the stoma.

Laparoscopic surgery is being used with many diseases of the intestinal tract, including initial cancers. For this surgery, the colon and rectal surgeon inserts a laparoscope (an instrument that has a tiny video camera attached) through a small incision in the abdomen. Other small incisions are made through which the surgeon inserts surgical instruments . This surgery often results in fewer complications, a shorter stay in the hospital, less postoperative pain, a quicker return to normal activities, and less scarring.

Recently, a new and more advanced technique called robotic surgery is introduced. Here

a surgeon performs operation using a computer that remotely controls very small instruments attached to a robot.

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